1. An egalitarian society (one where men and women are equal in rights).
2. A Patriarchy (Where men dominate), and
3. A Matriarchy (Where women dominate)
1 - When a culture or tribe is small. Such as in a fishing village or another such small community, tasks and responsibilities tend to get shared by all members of society. This leads to a social structure where men and women are basically equal.
This is a small hunter-gather group that depends on each other to survive and live in harmony with other tribes in a kind of large family system (i.e. the tribes are interconnected);
A major point in the study is that foraging bands contain several individuals completely unconnected by kinship or marriage ties, yet include males with a vested interest in the offspring of daughters, sisters and wives.
"The increase in human network size over other primates may explain why humans evolved an emphasis on social learning that results in cultural transmission," said Hill. "Likewise, the unique composition of human ancestral groups promotes cooperation among large groups of non-kin, something extremely rare in nature."
The group's findings appear in the paper "Co-Residence Patterns in Hunter-Gatherer Societies Show Unique Human Social Structure." It is the first published analyses of adult co-residence patterns in hunter-gatherer societies based on census data rather than post-marital residence typologies, Hill noted.
2. When a culture become focused on hunting, especially when it reaches the totemic stage then the culture become dominated by men as men are the providers of the primary sustenance.
Imagine the above small hunter-gather groups have grown, made better weapons, hunt more and you get the social structure of the Apaches or Sioux or Cherokee.
In fact, there is a theory (very well backed) that suggests that the reason there are so many variations of the Zeus myth of abducting 'mortal' women and having children with them that this represented the possible invasion of a patriarchal tribe into a matriarchal zone. Each female abduction, a takeover of a new region.
Obviously the hunting tribes(patriarchies) are more battle hardened and would win in any drawn out war, if there was competition over land.
Saharia's theory on the origins of patriarchy is mostly about the remnants of a civilization in decline. So we have a people that are violent. In atmospheres where the ions are positive rather than negative (because of the lack of moisture) to which humans have a negative reaction... imagine millinia of generations in such an environment! It also explains why the Saudis have the largest water plants and use the most water of any country in the world.
Another theory for the switch the a patriarchal society is based on an ancient myth of a time, long ago, when women ruled. A bunch of men got fed up with their rule and formed secret clubs, conspiring to take over. One day they revolted and men have been in charge ever since. [Don't remember where that myth is, so will update this at some-point in the future. You can learn more by reading Joseph Campbell's "Primitive Mythology", "Occidental Mythology" and "Oriental Mythology"]
Currently, the general trend is a movement towards an egalitarian society.
(Despite an outlier group with a great amount of money and power.)
Most of the problems in understanding history or interpreting culture comes from the perceptions of the people involved. For example: America was discovered by Columbus BUT technically, it had already been discovered as there were people living there. But they were seen as savages and were massacred.
Jared Diamond’s ‘Guns, Germs and Steel’ Part 1 – Out of Eden
Jared Diamond’s ‘Guns, Germs and Steel’ Part 2 – Conquest and the Tropics